This is a nice list to keep for reference somewhere:

Eg: $(‘#some-id’) :

The $ is not a jQuery selector, but a shorthanded version of element(by.css(‘#some-id’)). In this fashion, we’d be able to select elements by id, class and attributes:

$(‘#some-id’) // element(
$(‘.some-class’) // element(by.className())
$(‘tag-name’) // element(by.tagName())
$(‘[ng-message=required]’) // remember to leave out the double quotes around the value of attribute
$(‘#parent #child’) // select one child inside parent
$(‘ul li’) // select all children inside parent
$(‘ul li’).first() // select first of children
$(‘ul li’).last() // select last of children
$(‘ul li’).get(index) // select index-th of children

Then we get the more interesting ones:

element(by.repeater(‘cat in pets’));
element(by.options(‘c for c in colors’))
element(by.binding(‘value’)); // only look through the elements with ng-binding attribute
element(by.buttonText(‘Save’)); // the whole of button text
element(by.partialButtonText(‘Save’)); // part of button text
element(by.cssContainingText(‘.pet’, ‘Dog’)) // for selecting this: <li class=”pet”>Dog</li>
element(by.deepCss(‘span’)) // for selecting all level of spans <span><span>x</span></span>

Reference :