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What Is HTML5?

HTML5 is the newest hypertext markup language for websites from the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). The first draft was made public in 2008, but not much happened until 2011. In 2011, HTML5 was released and people started writing about it and using it, but the support in different browsers was still poor. Today all major browsers (Chrome, Safari, Firefox, Opera, IE) offer HTML5 support, therefore the newest HTML technology can be used at its best today.

HTML5 works with CSS3 and is still in development. W3C plans to release a stable version next year, but it still looks like this is a long shot. Since its release, HTML5 has been in continuous development, with the W3C adding more and more impressive features, therefore it seems quite unlikely that HTML5′s development will end soon, which is not necessarily a bad thing.

HTML5 is the successor of HTML 4.01, released for the first time in 1999. The internet has changed significantly since 1999 and it seemed like the creation of HTML5 was necessary. The new markup language was developed based on pre-set standards:

  • New features should be based on HTML, CSS, DOM, and JavaScript.
  • The need for external plugins (like Flash) needs to be reduced.
  • Error handling should be easier than in previous versions.
  • Scripting has to be replaced by more markup.
  • HTML5 should be device-independent.
  • The development process should be visible to the public.
  • Less dependence on plugins for functionality.
  • Scripting should be replaced with markup whenever possible.
  • Device independence (i.e., available on all devices and providing the same end experience).
  • Public development process so people can see what’s going on.

What’s new?

HTML5 was created to make the coding process easier and more logical. You will see a bit later that many syntaxes are now deprecated and soon to be kicked out through the back door. The unique and impressive features HTML5 comes with are in the multimedia department. Many of the features it comes with have been created with the consideration that users should be able to run heavy content on low-powered devices. The syntactic features include the new <video>, <audio> and <canvas> elements, but also integration of vector graphics content (what we knew before as being the <object> tags). This means that multimedia and graphic content on the web will be handled and executed easier and faster, without the need of plugins or APIs.

There are a bunch load of new syntaxes added, but below I will name and describe the most important. The rest of them can always be found in W3C’s HTML5 section.

  • <article> – this tag defines an article, a user comment or a post, so an independent item of content
  • <aside> – the aside tag marks content aside from the page content, which for example could be a lateral sidebar
  • <header><footer> – you won’t need to manually name IDs for headers and footers, as now you have a pre-defined tag for them
  • <nav> – the navigation can now be placed in the markup in between the nav tags, which will automatically make your lists act like navigation
  • <section> – this is another important new syntax, as it can define any kind of sections in your document. It works pretty much like a div which separates different sections.
  • <audio><video> – these two obviously mark sound or video content, which will now be easier to run by devices.
  •  – this new tag defines a container for interactive content (plugin) or external application
  • <canvas> – the canvas tag is quite exciting, as it allows drawing graphics via scripting (mostly JavaScript, but some others can be employed as well)
  • HTML5 also deprecates some tags: <acronym>, <applet>, <font>, <frame>, <frameset>,<noframes>, and a handful of others.

HTML4 has worked well, but it obviously has a number of flaws. The team behind HTML5 has a certain high-level plan for the next step in HTML, which means that HTML5 must be built on the following principles:

What is important to remember is that the new HTML5 tags do not always work as the ones before. For example, the header and footer tags will not only mark the start and the end of a page, but also the start and the end of each section you have. This means that these two tags are likely to be used more than once in the whole page. In the illustration below can you see what I mean.

Oh yes, and the DOCTYPE declaration finally makes some sense. Or, at least, this time it is much simpler than before and it is very easy for us to remember and we won’t have to search for it on the web or copy it from site to site. <!DOCTYPE html> closed by </html> at the end of the page is something we waited for for a long time to come and now it finally is here.

Moreover, complex XHTML declarations many of us used before can now be replaced with <html lang=”en”> and long encoding declarations can simply be written in this way: <meta charset=”utf-8″>. Can it get simpler than that? It most definitely can’t.

The following tags from HTML 4.01 are now removed from HTML5, therefore browsers do not offer support for them anymore. This means that it is a good idea to go back to your HTML pages and check for them, as they might disrupt the design in the latest browsers.

  • <acronym>
  • <applet>
  • <basefont>
  • <big>
  • <center>
  • <dir>
  • <font>
  • <frame>
  • <frameset>
  • <noframes>
  • <strike>
  • <tt>

Things to know about HTML5

It is crucial to remember that HTML5 is built on the success of its previous version, HTML 4.01, which is undoubtedly the best version ever. In order to be better at using HTML5 you do not need to forget everything about the previous version. You are not learning a totally new language here. Keep your beloved syntaxes and keep the way you used to format your code, only remember that now you need to build upon the coding skills you already have.

In case you have absolutely no knowledge of HTML and you want to start now, I advise you to start with HTML 4.01 and only when you master it move onto HTML5. Starting with the latest version is like learning to run before learning to walk – which is impossible as far as I know. HTML 4.01 still contains the basics of HTML5, therefore in my opinion you should have strong knowledge of former HTML versions in order to be able to master HTML5.

The upside of learning HTML5 now is that the new markup language works right away. You can basically do whatever you want with it today – and it is supported in all major browsers. From video to geolocation, local storage and microdata annotations, HTML5 is something we need to start using. If you are in the design business, sticking with HTML 4.01 is a mistake, because everybody will move on while you will remain behind.

HTML5 is definitely here to stay. It is created to sustain today’s necessities and especially because it is in continuous development, it will be able to sustain the changes that will happen in the industry for quite some time. One of the reasons behind HTML5 taking so much time to develop is because the W3C had to analyze lots of factors and think of the future. They took their time and finally delivered something that can easily be labelled as a high-quality product.

Quick Reference…

What is the status of the development of the HTML 5 standard?
HTML5 is being developed as the next major revision of HTML (HyperText Markup Language), the core markup language of the World Wide Web. The Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG) started work on the specification in June 2004 under the name Web Applications 1.0. As of March 2010, the specification is in the Draft Standard state at the WHATWG, and in Working Draft state at the W3C.
 
What are the new APIs provided by the HTML 5 standard? Give a brief description of each
·         The canvas element: Canvas consists of a drawable region defined in HTML code with height and width attributes. JavaScript code may access the area through a full set of drawing functions similar to other common 2D APIs, thus allowing for dynamically generated graphics. Some anticipated uses of the canvas include building graphs, animations, games, and image composition.
·         Timed media playback
·         Offline storage database
·         Document editing
·         Drag-and-drop
·         Cross-document messaging
·         Browser history management
·         MIME type and protocol handler registration
 
What is the purpose of HTML5 versus XHTML?

HTML5 is the next version of HTML 4.01, XHTML 1.0 and DOM Level 2 HTML. It aims to reduce the need for proprietary plug-in-based rich internet application (RIA) technologies such as Adobe Flash, Microsoft Silverlight, Apache Pivot, and Sun JavaFX. Instead of using those plugins, it enables browser to serve elements such as video and audio without any additional requirements on the client machine.

What is the difference between HTML and HTML5 ?

HTML5 is nothing more than upgraded version of HTML where in HTML5 supports the innovative features such as Video, Audio/mp3, date select function , placeholder , Canvas, 2D/3D Graphics, Local SQL Database added so that no need to do external plugin like Flash player or other library elemenents.

WHAT are some other advantages of HTML5?

a)      Cleaner markup than earlier versions of HTML

b)      Additional semantics of new elements like <header>, <nav>, and <time>

c)       New form input types and attributes that will (and in Opera’s case, do) take the hassle out of scripting forms.

What is the use of Canvas Element in HTML5?

HTML5 Canvas element can be used to draw graphics images on a web page by using javascript.

What is the  <!DOCTYPE>? Is it mandatory to use in HTML5?

The <!DOCTYPE> is an instruction to the web browser about what version of HTML the page is written in. The <!DOCTYPE> tag does not have an end tag. It is not case sensitive.The <!DOCTYPE> declaration must be the very first thing in HTML5 document, before the <html> tag.  As In HTML 4.01, all <! DOCTYPE > declarations require a reference to a Document Type Definition (DTD), because HTML 4.01 was based on Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). WHERE AS HTML5 is not based on SGML, and therefore does not require a reference to a Document Type Definition (DTD).

What are the New Media Elements in HTML5?

New Media Elements in HTML5 are :

TAG DESCRIPTION
<audio> For multimedia content, sounds, music or other audio streams
<video> For video content, such as a movie clip or other video streams
<source> For media resources for media elements, defined inside video or audio
elements
For embedded content, such as a plug-in
<track> For text tracks used in mediaplayers

 

What is the major improvement with HTML5 in reference to Flash?

Flash is not supported by major mobile devices such as iPad, iPhone and universal android applications. Those mobile devices have lack of support for installing flash plugins. HTML5 is supported by all the devices, apps and browser including Apple and Android products. Compared to Flash, HTML5 is very secured and protected. That eliminates major concerns that we have seen with Flash.

What is the use of localStorage in HTML5 ?

Before HTML5 LocalStores was done with cookies. Cookies are not very good for large amounts of data, because they are passed on by every request to the server, so it was very slow and in-effective.

In HTML5, the data is NOT passed on by every server request, but used ONLY when asked for. It is possible to store large amounts of data without affecting the website’s performance.and The data is stored in different areas for different websites, and a website can only access data stored by itself.

And for creating localstores just need to call localStorage object like below we are storing name and address

<script type=”text/javascript”>

localStorage.name=”PCDS”;

document.write(localStorage.name);

</script>

<script type=”text/javascript”>

localStorage.address=”Mumbai India..”;

document.write(localStorage.address);

</script>

What is the sessionStorage Object in html5 ? How to create and access ?

 

The sessionStorage object stores the data for one session. The data is deleted when the user closes the browser window. like below we can create and access a sessionStorage here we created “name” as session

<script type=”text/javascript”>

sessionStorage.name=”PCDS”;

document.write(sessionStorage.name);

</script>

What are the new APISs provided by the HTML5 standard ,give a brief description of each ?

 

The canvas element: Canvas consists of a drawable region defined in HTML code with height and width attributes. JavaScript code may access the area through a full set of drawing functions similar to other common 2D APIs, thus allowing for dynamically generated graphics. Some anticipated uses of the canvas include building graphs, animations, games, and image composition.

• Timed media playback
• Offline storage database
• Document editing
• Drag-and-drop
• Cross-document messaging
• Browser history management
• MIME type and protocol handler registration

 

What elements have disappeared?

As mentioned above, <frame> and <frameset> have been eliminated. Other elements that are no longer supported include: <noframe>, <applet>, <bigcenter> and <basefront>.

What is the difference between SVG and <Canvas>?

 

<Canvas> is an element that manipulates two-dimensional (2D) pixels while Scalable Vector Graphics works in 2D and three-dimensional (3D) vectors. Essentially, <Canvas> is to SVG as Photoshop is to Illustrator.

What is the difference between HTML5 interaction in Sencha and Twitter/Bootstrap?

Sencha and Twitter/Bootstrap are both HTML development frameworks that integrate HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript. The major difference is that in Sencha, the three languages are all comingled together in code, whereas in Bootstrap, HTML and CSS and decoupled.

What purpose do Work Workers serve and what are some of their benefits?

Web Workers are background scripts that do not interfere with the user interface or user interactions on a webpage, allowing HTML to render uninterrupted while JavaScript works in the background.

Describe the difference between cookies, sessionStorage, andlocalStorage.

 

Cookies are small text files that websites place in a browser for tracking or login purposes. Meanwhile, localStorage and sessionStorage are new objects, both of which are storage specifications but vary in scope and duration. Of the two, localStorage is permanent and website-specific whereas sessionStorage only lasts as long as the duration of the longest open tab.

What is the difference in caching between HTML5 and the old HTML?

An important feature of HTML5 is the Application Cache. It creates an offline version of a web application. and stores website files such as HTML files, CSS, images, and JavaScript, locally. It is a feature that speeds up site performance

-Thanks,

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